Josip Broz Tito, original name Josip Broz ( 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980) was the leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1945 until his death in 1980. During World War II, Tito organized the anti-fascist resistance movement known as the People’s Liberation Movement led by Yugoslav Partisans. Later he was a founding member of Cominform, but resisted Soviet influence and became one of the main founders and promoters of the Non-Aligned Movement. He supported the creation of a Yugoslav nationality and identity as a Pan-Slavic replacement of the existing nationalities in Yugoslavia, and thus through his actions, was considered a Yugoslav.
Josip Broz was born in Kumrovec, in the small region of Hrvatsko Zagorje in Croatia. Then it was Croatia-Slavonia, a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the seventh child of Franjo and Marija Broz. His father, Franjo Broz, was a Croat, while his mother Marija was a Slovene. After spending part of his childhood years with his maternal grandfather in village of Podsreda, in 1900 he entered the primary school in Kumrovec, he failed the 2nd grade and graduated in 1905. In 1907, moving out of the rural environment, Broz started working as a machinist’s apprentice in Sisak. There, he became aware of the labor movement and celebrated 1 May – Labour Day for the first time. In 1910, he joined the union of metallurgy workers and at the same time the Social-Democratic Party of Croatia and Slavonia. Between 1911 and 1913, Broz worked for shorter periods in Kamnik, Cenkovo, Munich, and Mannheim, where he worked for the Benz automobile factory; he then went to Wiener Neustadt, Austria, and worked as a test driver for Daimler.
In the autumn of 1913, he was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army. He was sent to a school for non-commissioned officers and became a sergeant. In May 1914, Broz won a silver medal at an army fencing competition in Budapest. At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, he was sent to Ruma, where he was arrested for anti-war propaganda and imprisoned in the Petrovaradin fortress. In January 1915, he was sent to the Eastern Front in Galicia to fight against Russia. He distinguished himself as a capable soldier and was recommended for military decoration. On Easter 25 March 1915, while in Bukovina, he was seriously wounded and captured by the Russians.
On 6 April 1941, German, Italian, and Hungarian forces launched an invasion of Yugoslavia. Nazi Germany initiated a three-pronged drive on the Yugoslavian capital, Belgrade. Meanwhile, the Luftwaffe bombed Belgrade (Operation Punishment) and other major Yugoslavian cities. Attacked from all sides, the armed forces of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia quickly crumbled. Subsequently, on 17 April, after King Peter II and other members of the government fled the country, the remaining representatives of the government and military met with the German officials in Belgrade. They quickly agreed to end military resistance.
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